POINTS OF INTEREST
for dysphagia & dysarthria therapies
factors & voice therapy outcomes
treatments for apraxia
Dysphagia, dysarthria, voice disorders, and apraxia are neurologically
and/or physiologically-based conditions that are often encountered by speech
language pathologists in acute care and rehabilitative medical settings.
Often the disorders co-occur and assessment and intervention planning
for one may be influenced by the presence of another.
Nine of the 65 reviews in the Catalogue addressed issues relating to
dysphagia, dysarthria, voice disorders, and apraxia. Six of these reviews focused on
individual intervention techniques that are commonly used in
clinical practice, such as strength training in dysarthria and placement
cueing in apraxia of speech. Two reviews provided information on the
etiology of voice disorders. One review provided information specific
to the assessment and treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction.
THE REVIEWS CONCLUDE
Dysarthria and Dysphagia:
Many neuromuscular treatments for dysarthria and dysphagia (e.g., strength
training, stretching, thermal tactile approaches, and electrical stimulation
strategies) that are commonly used in clinical practice were shown to have
only minimal evidentiary support.
Behavioural treatment of voice disorders, including those caused by vocal
nodules, can be effective for children; however, factors such as
family/teacher involvement and the amount of education about vocal hygiene
affect the outcomes of behavioural interventions. Additionally, the
appropriateness of materials and children’s motivation are mediating factors
in voice treatment effectiveness. Specific voice therapy techniques such as
the “yawn sigh” or “chewing” were not reviewed. One group of authors found
insufficient evidence for determining the comparative benefits of
behavioural versus surgical interventions for the treatment of vocal
nodules. Client characteristics remain important in predicting the
effectiveness of behavioural interventions following surgery.
Two reviews addressed the etiology of voice disorders. One described the
structure and function of the paediatric larynx, as well as specific
childhood voice disorders. The other review examined the limited research
evidence on the relationship between personality and voice disorders.
Personality traits thought to be associated with functional dysphonia, vocal
nodules, and spasmodic dysphonia were described.
an article reviewed evidence-based screening and assessment techniques for
velopharyngeal dysfunction and provided scoring forms.
Treatments for apraxia of speech such as temporal (rate reduction), prosodic
(stress and intonation), articulatory placement cueing, and biofeedback were
often found to be effective in a treatment setting; however, most lacked
evidence of generalization.
©2006 by Canadian Centre for Knowledge Mobilisation. All